- 20 February 2023
- By GyanOk
Daily Current Affairs Notes for 20 February 2023
World Day of Social Justice observed on 20th February
2023 World Day of Social Justice provides an opportunity to foster dialogue with Member States, youth, social partners, civil society, UN agencies.
World Day of Social Justice
Every year on February 20th, people around the globe observe the World Day of Social Justice with the primary objective of speaking out against social injustice. The day serves as a platform to unite diverse communities across the world in their efforts to eliminate poverty, physical discrimination, gender inequality, religious discrimination, and illiteracy, and to create a socially inclusive society. This day also presents an opportunity for individuals, organizations, and governments to assess the progress they have made towards achieving social justice and to identify areas that require further action.
Theme of World Day of Social Justice 2023
The theme for this year's World Day of Social Justice centers around the suggestions put forth by Our Common Agenda to reinforce global solidarity and restore people's faith in government by "Overcoming Obstacles and Unlocking Opportunities for Social Justice."
Significance of World Day of Social Justice 2023
The World Day of Social Justice holds immense importance as it helps to raise consciousness and stimulate action towards establishing a fairer and more equitable world. This day serves as a reminder of the criticality of collaborative efforts in addressing issues like poverty, inequality, and discrimination. It calls upon individuals and organizations to step up and leverage their voices and resources to advance social justice and foster a world that is just and impartial for all.
History of World Day of Social Justice
On June 10, 2008, the International Labour Organization (ILO) unanimously adopted the ILO Declaration on Social Justice for a Fair Globalization. This declaration is the third major statement of principles and policies to be passed by the International Labour Conference since the adoption of the ILO's Constitution in 1919. It builds on the Philadelphia Declaration of 1944 and the Declaration on Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work of 1998, and reflects the ILO's current vision in the context of globalization.
Furthermore, on November 26, 2007, the General Assembly designated February 20th as the annual World Day of Social Justice, starting from the sixty-third session of the General Assembly.
Gupta Empire Art And Architecture: Know About Gupta Art and Architecture
Gupta Art and Architecture: From the beginning of the fourth century CE to the end of the sixth century CE, the Gupta Empire ruled over ancient India. Let us know about the Gupta Art and Architecture.
Gupta Art and Architecture
The Gupta Empire reigned over ancient India from the early fourth century CE until the late sixth century CE. At its zenith, between approximately 319 and 467 CE, it held sway over a vast expanse of the Indian subcontinent, earning it the moniker of India's "Golden Era."
The Gupta dynasty was founded by King Sri Gupta and included notable members such as Chandragupta I, Samudragupta, Chandragupta II, and Skandagupta. The Guptas are recognized for their conquest of around twenty-one kingdoms, both within and beyond India, as per Sanskrit poet Kalidasa who lived during the fifth century CE. These kingdoms comprised the Parasikas, Hunas, Kambojas, tribes inhabiting the west and east Oxus valleys, the Kinnaras, the Kiratas, among others.
- The Gupta Empire, which held sway over much of northern India from 300 to 480 CE, is renowned for its art, which persisted in a somewhat diminished form until approximately 550 CE. The Gupta era is widely considered the pinnacle and golden age of North Indian art for all major religious groups in the region.
- Gupta painting is characterized by its "Classical decorum," which contrasts with later Indian medieval art that prioritized individuals over religious themes. Although numerous paintings from this era survive, they are predominantly religious in nature. Hindu art during this time produced famous carved stone deities, while the production of Buddha statues and Jain tirthankara statues, often on a grand scale, continued to rise.
- Sculpture remained prominent in Mathura, the traditional epicentre of sculpture, while Gandhara, the centre of Greco-Buddhist art situated just beyond the northern boundary of Gupta dominance, continued to exert its influence. Additionally, new centres such as Sarnath emerged during this era. Sculpture produced in Sarnath and Mathura was exported to other regions of northern India.
Background of Gupta Art
- Gupta art followed the period of Kushan art, which thrived in northern India between the first and fourth centuries CE, and blended the Greco-Buddhist art of Gandhara, influenced by Hellenistic artistic canons, with the more indigenous Indian art of Mathura.
- Devnimori displays an advanced form of art created by the Western Satraps in Western India.
- The art found in Devnimori predates the development of Gupta art and is believed to have influenced it, as well as the artwork found in other locations such as the Ajanta Caves and Sarnath, from the fifth century CE onwards.
- A sophisticated Indian creative style had already been developed in central India by the Satavahanas.
- The Gupta Empire, through the conquests of Samudragupta and Chandragupta II, extended its influence over a vast expanse of central, northern, and northwestern India, as well as the regions of the Punjab and the Arabian Sea.
- The Gupta Empire continued and extended the artistic traditions from previous eras, developing a unique Gupta style that reached new levels of refinement, grace, and magnificence.
- The Gupta imperial family did not use inscriptions, much alone portraits that have survived, to declare their connection to the art created under them, in contrast to certain other Indian dynasties before and after them.
The Gupta Dynasty in North Central India was responsible for the creation of the first purpose-built Hindu and Buddhist temples, which evolved from the ancient tradition of rock-cut shrines. These temples, dedicated to multiple Hindu deities, were adorned with elaborate decorations and towering structures. The architectural styles, designs, and features of Gupta temples were highly diverse.
The diverse range of structures in the Gupta period suggests that Hindu temple architecture was still evolving and had not yet reached the standardized form of later centuries. However, it is undeniable that Gupta-era structures influenced later Indian temple design, which continued until the medieval period. Unfortunately, only a small fraction of the many temples constructed during the Gupta era have survived.
Gupta Architecture: Gupta Cave Shrines
- The earliest forms of religious architecture were cave-temples, typically featuring a single carved doorway and an exterior decorated with relief sculptures. Inside the shrine, a Shiva linga and other ritual sculptures were erected, while the walls were richly adorned with carvings depicting mythological scenes. An excellent example of this is a cave near Udayagiri in Madhya Pradesh, with a date stamp indicating 401 CE. This shrine houses one of the finest examples of Gupta art: a famous relief depicting Vishnu as the boar-headed Varaha. The panel, which measures 7 by 4 metres, portrays the main figure emerging from cosmic waters after slaying a snake-like monster and saving the goddess Bhudevi (Earth). Based on a well-known Hindu story, the image may also be an allegory for the protection and tranquillity provided by the Gupta rulers. The variety of Gupta architectural styles demonstrates that temple architecture was still evolving and had not yet reached the standardized state seen in subsequent centuries. Nevertheless, the Gupta-era structures had a lasting impact on later Indian temple design, which persisted until the Middle Ages. Unfortunately, only a small number of the many Gupta temples that were constructed have survived.
Gupta Architecture: Materials & Features of Gupta Temples
The Guptas were the first dynasty to construct permanent Hindu temples that stood independently, breaking away from the earlier tradition of cave-temples, and paving the way for a long legacy of Indian temple architecture. It is important to note that these temples were built as a dwelling place (devalaya) for the gods, rather than as gathering places. Within the elaborate palace (prasada), priests could make offerings to the gods, while worshippers could offer prayers, flowers, and food (puja) to a sacred artefact or statue representing a particular deity, housed within a compact, windowless chamber (the garbhagriha). Additionally, it was customary for devotees to circumambulate the temple as part of a sacred ritual.
Chhatrapati Shivaji Jayanti 2023 to be organized In Agra Fort
Chhatrapati Shivaji Jayanti 2023 to be organized In Agra Fort: An official announced that Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj's 393rd birthday celebration will take place in Diwan-e-Aam area of the Agra Fort.
Chhatrapati Shivaji Jayanti 2023 to be organized In Agra Fort
It has been announced that the 393rd birth anniversary celebration of Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj will be held on Sunday in the Diwan-e-Aam area of the Agra Fort. Shivaji Bhonsale I, also known as the 17th-century Maratha emperor, was born on February 19, 1630.
UP’s Agra Fort to be the Venue of Chhatrapati Shivaji Jayanti 2023: Key Point
- The Maharashtra-based social and cultural organization, Ajinkya Deogiri Pratisthan, in partnership with the Maharashtra Ministry of Culture Affairs, will host the 393rd birth anniversary celebrations of Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj on Sunday in the Diwan-e-Aam area of Agra Fort. The President of the organization, Vinod Patil, stated that the Chief Minister of Maharashtra, Eknath Shinde, and the Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh, Yogi Adityanath, are expected to attend the event as chief guests. Chhatrapati Shivaji is widely regarded as a national hero and an icon, particularly in Maharashtra, and his bravery and remarkable accomplishments, which favored farmers and women during his time, will be highlighted during the event.
After a cultural event program for G-20 conference attendees on February 11, cracks were discovered in the ceiling of the Diwan-e-aam, also known as the Hall of Audience, in the 16th-century Mughal structure.