- 14 February 2023
- By GyanOk
Daily Current Affairs Notes for 14 February 2023
Pulwama Attack Anniversary: 14th February 2023 Tribute and Salute Martyred CRPF Jawans
Pulwama Attack Anniversary: Feb 14, world is celebrating Valentine's Day and India will mark the 4th anniversary of the horrifying Pulwama terrorist assault that claimed the lives of 40 CRPF soldiers.
Pulwama Attack Anniversary
Valentine's Day is being celebrated worldwide on February 14, 2023, while India observes the fourth anniversary of the Pulwama terrorist attack that killed 40 CRPF soldiers.
Pulwama Attack Anniversary: About
- JeM claimed responsibility for the terrorist attack carried out by Adil Ahmad Dar, a young local of Pulwama associated with the organization, which targeted a convoy of security personnel on the Jammu Srinagar National Highway near Lethpora in the Pulwama area of Jammu and Kashmir, resulting in the deaths of 40 CRPF jawans. The attack caused significant outrage and condemnation in India.
Pulwama Attack Anniversary: Actions Taken By India
- Following the incident, which escalated tensions between India and Pakistan, the Indian government implemented diplomatic, economic, and military actions against Pakistan. India's airstrike against terrorist facilities controlled by Pakistan in Kashmir was considered a significant escalation in hostilities between the two countries. The international community also denounced the attack, with many countries supporting India and urging action against terrorism. The United States and the United Nations condemned the incident and demanded that the perpetrators be held responsible.
What does Pulwama Attack remind us of?
- The Pulwama attack is a somber reminder of the persistent threat of terrorism and the need for increased global coordination and cooperation to combat this menace. The international community should persist in collaborating to counter terrorism and ensure that those responsible for such heinous acts are brought to justice.
Pulwama Attack Anniversary: Tribute to Martyred CRPF Jawans
The country mourns the loss of its brave soldiers, and the anniversary serves as a reminder of the need to remain vigilant against the threat of terrorism. In response to the Pulwama attack, the Indian Air Force conducted an airstrike on terrorist camps in Balakot, Pakistan on February 26, 2019. The Director General of the CRPF, A P Maheshwari, also released a video book honoring the 40 members of the force who died in the line of duty. The force was initially established under the name Crown Representative's Police (CRP) during the British Raj in 1939 and was later renamed the Central Reserve Police Force in 1949.
Article 370 of Indian Constitution History and Provisions
Article 370 of Indian Constitution:. Article 370 granted Jammu and Kashmir the authority to internal administrative autonomy while it was governed by India as a state from 1952 until 31 October 2019.
Article 370 of Indian Constitution
Jammu and Kashmir is a region located in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent and is part of the larger Kashmir area. Since 1947, the region has been a point of contention between India, Pakistan, and China. It was granted special status under Article 370 of the Indian constitution, which allowed Jammu and Kashmir to maintain a separate constitution, a state flag, and internal administrative autonomy while remaining a state governed by India from 1952 until October 31, 2019.
Article 370 of Indian Constitution Removed
Article 370 was formulated under Part XXI of the Indian Constitution, which is named "Temporary, Transitional and Special Provisions." The article specified that the Jammu and Kashmir Constituent Assembly could determine the extent to which the Indian Constitution would apply to the state. If the state assembly chose to repeal Article 370 entirely, the Indian Constitution would apply to the entire state.
After the state constituent assembly was convened, it proposed recommendations on which provisions of the Indian Constitution should be applied to the state, based on which a presidential order was issued in 1954. As the state constituent assembly disbanded without recommending the repeal of Article 370, it was presumed that the provision had become a permanent part of the Indian Constitution.
Article 370 of Indian Constitution History
- On August 5, 2019, the Government of India issued a Presidential Order, replacing the 1954 order, and bringing Jammu and Kashmir under all articles of the Indian Constitution. The order was based on a resolution that passed both houses of the Indian parliament with a two-thirds majority. Subsequently, all but clause 1 of Article 370 were rendered ineffective by a subsequent order on August 6. The Indian parliament also passed the Jammu and Kashmir Reorganisation Act, 2019, which split the state into two union territories, Jammu and Kashmir and Ladakh, effective from October 31, 2019. A five-judge bench was formed after the Supreme Court of India received 23 petitions opposing the central government's plan to revoke Article 370.
Article 370 of Indian Constitution: Special status of the state of Jammu and Kashmir
- Article 370 grants Jammu and Kashmir special status in terms of autonomy and the ability to create laws for its permanent residents, providing them with special benefits in housing, real estate, education, and government jobs. Article 35A prohibits challenges to state laws on the basis that they violate fundamental rights guaranteed to all Indian citizens. The Indian Constitution's Fundamental Rights were partially applied to Kashmir in the 1954 Presidential order.
The state assembly also included "preventive detention laws" that were immune to human rights grievances for 25 years, which further altered the situation. As a result of the autonomy and unique status of Jammu and Kashmir, the region has weaker human rights standards, according to Cottrell.
Article 370 of Indian Constitution: Instrument of Accession
In October 1947, the Maharaja of Kashmir, Hari Singh, signed an Instrument of Accession, ceding authority over foreign affairs, defense, and communications to the Indian government. In March 1948, he appointed Sheikh Abdullah as prime minister of the state's temporary administration. Abdullah and three other associates then entered the Indian Constituent Assembly in July 1949 and negotiated the state's unique status, which led to the approval of Article 370. Sheikh Abdullah was responsible for drafting the contentious clause.
Article 370 of Indian Constitution Provisions
- Parliament requires the consent of the Jammu & Kashmir government before enacting laws in the territory, except in matters related to defence, foreign affairs, finance, and communications. The state has distinct laws related to citizenship, property, and fundamental rights, and residents of other states are prohibited from purchasing real estate in Jammu and Kashmir. The state cannot be subjected to a financial emergency by the Centre under Article 370.
- Article 370(1)(c) binds the state of J&K to the Indian Union, as it specifically refers to the application of Article 1 of the Indian Constitution which lists the Union's states. The removal of Article 370, which can be achieved through a Presidential Order, would make the state independent of India unless new overriding laws are created.
- India and Pakistan both claim sovereignty over Kashmir, a Himalayan territory. The region, previously known as Jammu and Kashmir, became part of India in 1947 after the partition of the subcontinent. Following a war between the two countries, a ceasefire line was agreed upon, and separate portions of the region came under Indian and Pakistani control. Jammu and Kashmir, controlled by India, has witnessed a separatist uprising against Indian rule, resulting in violence for the past 30 years.
Sarojini Naidu Birth Anniversary: Why is February 13 celebrated as National Women’s Day?
Sarojini Naidu Birth Anniversary: Every year on February 13, the nation commemorates Sarojini Naidu's birth anniversary, which is also celebrated as National Women's Day.
Sarojini Naidu Birth Anniversary: National Women’s Day
Sarojini Naidu, a prominent female figure of the 20th century, is commemorated every year on February 13, her birth anniversary. This year marks her 144th anniversary. She was born on February 13, 1879, in Hyderabad, and was renowned in India as a poet, politician, and administrator. Her poetry earned her the moniker "Nightingale of India." She was a vital figure in the Indian National Movement, which aimed to secure the nation's independence.
Why is Sarojini Naidu’s Birthday Celebrated as National Women’s Day?
On February 13 every year, India observes National Women's Day, the reason for which is not widely known. However, it is the birth anniversary of Sarojini Naidu, a prominent poetess and freedom fighter known as the "Nightingale of India" due to her poetry. She played an active role in the Indian National Movement for independence.
About Sarojini Naidu:
- Sarojini Naidu, known for her high IQ, was born on February 13, 1879. National Women’s Day in India is celebrated on this day to commemorate her 135th birth anniversary in 2014. At the age of twelve, she began writing poetry, and later, she actively participated in the fight for Indian independence and women’s rights. She was India’s first female governor and her collection of poems, Golden Threshold, earned her the nickname “Bul Bule Hind”. She was admired by Indian politicians such as Gopal Krishna Gokhale, Mahatma Gandhi, and Jawaharlal Nehru. In 1925, she became the President of Congress and was awarded the Kaiser-i-Hind medal by the British government for her contributions during the plague outbreak in India. In 1932, she went to South Africa on behalf of India.